I/Passive voice (P.V): is usually to emphasize the result, the fact or the object of an action ,not the agent.
*P.V is used only with Transitive Verb
*P.V is used more commonly in written language , especially in the impersonal style of textbooks or report ( to describe an industrial and scientific process, to describe historical and social process or in official rules and procedures)
The ore is usually dug out of the ground.
Applications should be made in writing.
General form :
S+Vt+O ( Vt= transitive verb)
-->PV:S(o) + be + P(2)+ (by O)
*to be in passive sentence is always in the same forms and tenses & main verbs in the active sentence.
*To verb is changed into to be P(2)
*Verb is changed into be P(2)
*V-ing is changed into Being P(2)
*Modal verbs work in the same way :
S+ modal verb + Vt+ O
->P.V : S(o)+modal verb + be+P(2) + (by S)
The windows in being painted .
The machine can be taken apart.
BASIC USES of passive voice
I/Agent and instrument:
*Agent : A person who does the action in the Passive sentence is called the agent
*Instrument : Things which cause something to happen in a passive sentence is called an instrument .
I was hit by a branch ( The branch itself hit me)
Iwas hit with a branch ( Some one use a branch to hit me ).
II/Transitive and intrasitive verbs :
1/Transitive verbs are the verbs with object.
There are 3 kinds of Vt( verb transitive )
---[b]Memo-trasitive verbB] : verb with 1 object (read, write,...)
---Di-transitive verb :verb with 2 objects(give, bring,pay,hand,show...)
---Complex transitive verb
I read the newspapers yesterday.
I gave her a present.
--All Vt.s can be made passive except :become, have, get, suit, fit, resemble.
2/Intrasitive verbs are verbs with no object :
The baby is sleeping.
The bird flies.
3/Some verbs are both transitive and intransitive verbs . "run" for example :
He ran a shop --> A shop was run by him .
He is running --> (no passive)
* In this case, we focus on transitive verbs
III/Cases of omitting the agent.
1/When the agent is general : people, they, you , we .
*When these sentences are made passive , these general agents can be omitted because they doesn't give more information .
All over the world, people respect the knowledge
-->The knowledge are respected all over the world .
2/ When the agent is obivious :
*In Passive sentences , when all people understand who do/does the action, then there is no need to mention the agent again .
Ex : The criminal was arrested ( by the police)
3/When the agent is unimportant( we don't need to know about the agent)
I was advised to worked harder.
4/When the agent is unknown ( we don't know anything about the agent)
She was killed yesterday
5/When both speakers and listeners know the agent
I was tested thoroughly.
6/When the speaker doesn't want to mention the agent. Then the agent is omitted.
It has been agreed to increased the salaries by 5%
7/When the speaker want to focus on the action rather than the agent
Mails are delivered to whom addressed