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Cho Ðiểm Chủ Ðề Này - PASSIVE VOICE
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13/12/2011, 10:30 am
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Bài gửiTiêu đề: PASSIVE VOICE
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Nguồn : Http://chupuhfc.no1.vn/t138-topic

Tiêu Đề : PASSIVE VOICE

Kết Nối Cộng Đồng Teen

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I/Passive voice (P.V): is usually to emphasize the result, the fact or the object of an action ,not the agent.

*P.V is used only with Transitive Verb
*P.V is used more commonly in written language , especially in the impersonal style of textbooks or report ( to describe an industrial and scientific process, to describe historical and social process or in official rules and procedures)

Ex :
The ore is usually dug out of the ground.
Applications should be made in writing.

II/Form

General form :
S+Vt+O ( Vt= transitive verb)
-->PV:S(o) + be + P(2)+ (by O)


NOTE:

*to be in passive sentence is always in the same forms and tenses & main verbs in the active sentence.

In P.V:

*To verb is changed into to be P(2)

*Verb is changed into be P(2)

*V-ing is changed into Being P(2)

*Modal verbs work in the same way :
S+ modal verb + Vt+ O

->P.V : S(o)+modal verb + be+P(2) + (by S)

Ex :
The windows in being painted .
The machine can be taken apart.

BASIC USES of passive voice


I/Agent and instrument:

*Agent : A person who does the action in the Passive sentence is called the agent
*Instrument : Things which cause something to happen in a passive sentence is called an instrument .

Ex:
I was hit by a branch ( The branch itself hit me)
Iwas hit with a branch ( Some one use a branch to hit me ).

II/Transitive and intrasitive verbs :

1/Transitive verbs are the verbs with object.

There are 3 kinds of Vt( verb transitive )

---[b]Memo-trasitive verbB] : verb with 1 object (read, write,...)
---Di-transitive verb :verb with 2 objects(give, bring,pay,hand,show...)
---Complex transitive verb

Ex:
I read the newspapers yesterday.
I gave her a present.

--All Vt.s can be made passive except :become, have, get, suit, fit, resemble.

2/Intrasitive verbs are verbs with no object :

Ex:
The baby is sleeping.
The bird flies.
3/Some verbs are both transitive and intransitive verbs . "run" for example :

Ex :
He ran a shop --> A shop was run by him .
He is running --> (no passive)

* In this case, we focus on transitive verbs

III/Cases of omitting the agent.

1/When the agent is general : people, they, you , we .

*When these sentences are made passive , these general agents can be omitted because they doesn't give more information .

Ex:
All over the world, people respect the knowledge
-->The knowledge are respected all over the world .

2/ When the agent is obivious :

*In Passive sentences , when all people understand who do/does the action, then there is no need to mention the agent again .

Ex : The criminal was arrested ( by the police)

3/When the agent is unimportant( we don't need to know about the agent)

Ex:
I was advised to worked harder.

4/When the agent is unknown ( we don't know anything about the agent)

Ex:
She was killed yesterday

5/When both speakers and listeners know the agent

Ex:
I was tested thoroughly.

6/When the speaker doesn't want to mention the agent. Then the agent is omitted.

Ex :
It has been agreed to increased the salaries by 5%

7/When the speaker want to focus on the action rather than the agent

Ex:
Mails are delivered to whom addressed

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